يستطيع المعد من خلال المعايشة الكاملة للواقع المحيط به وإحساسه بمشكلاته وقضاياه واهتماماته أن يلمح الأفكار التي تتناسب مع سياق البرنامج الذي يعده
ويتراوح غرض البرنامج ما بين الإعلام أي تقديم معلومات معينة لجمهور المشاهدين أو 3-
مرحلة البحث العلمي أو جمع المعلومات،· وتبدأ هذه المرحلة بعد الاستقرار على الموضوع أو فكرته الأساسية بشكل عام وتحديد الهدف منه،· وهي قد تمتد حتى المراحل الأخيرة لتنفيذ البرنامج من خلال الكتب والمراجع والنشرات والصحف وشبكة المعلومات الدولية (الإنترنت).
أولهما النصوص الكاملة فهي التي تستخدم عادة في البرامج الدرامية،· حيث يكون بوسع الكاتب أن يتحكم في كل عناصرها ويحدد كافة تفاصيلها من البداية حتى النهاية.
أما الشكل الآخر فهو النصوص غير الكاملة،· وفي هذا النوع لا يستطيع الكاتب أو معد البرامج أن يتحكم في كل عناصر البرنامج،· ومن ثم يقتصر المطلوب منه على مجرد تحديد الخطوط الرئيسية للبرنامج والنقاط أو الجوانب التي يلتزم بها الأشخاص المشاركون فيه.
وهي المرحلة التي تعتبر الممارسات النهائية لإعداد البرنامج كالاتصال بالمصادر والتأكيد معهم على ميعاد التصوير،· والتنسيق مع فريق العمل كالمخرج ومقدم البرنامج والتواجد
· برامج أطفال : وهي البرامج التي تختص بالطفل من متابعة ودراسة لان الأطفال هم أكثر فئات الجمهور حساسية،· ويتعين إن يتم إخضاع كافة البرامج الموجهة لهم للبحث والدراسة قبل بثها .
اولا:ما الغرض من برامج رياض الأطفال؟ هو تزويدهم بالأسس والقواعد التي تمكنهم من النمو كمشاركين فاعلين في الحياة المدنية والإستمرار في التعلم وتطوير ذاتهم علي مدي حياتهم ،· مما يجعل عملية التعلم مستمرة مدي الحياة ،· من خلال التعامل مع المواقف والتجارب الحياتية بإعتبارها مواقف تعلم يكتسبون منها الخبرات الإيجابية والمهارات الشخصية.
THE LEARNING PROGRAM
Kindergarten program is designed to help children build on their prior knowledge and The
experiences, form concepts, acquire foundational skills, and form positive attitudes to learning
as they begin to develop their goals for lifelong learning. It is also designed as the foundation
for a continuum of learning from Kindergarten to Grade 8. Existing programs and procedures
should be reviewed to ensure that they are consistent with the expectations that children are
expected to achieve by the end of Kindergarten. Boards will decide how the expectations can
best be achieved within the total Kindergarten program that they offer.
The knowledge and skills that the program is intended to help children develop are outlined
in the learning expectations section of this document on pages 29–59.
The learning expectations outlined in this document represent the first steps in a continuum of pro-
gramming from Kindergarten to Grade 8. They describe learning achievements that are appropriate
for young children and that provide the foundation for successful future learning experiences.
Learning expectations are given for six areas of learning – Personal and Social Development,
Language, Mathematics, Science and Technology, Health and Physical Activity, and The Arts.
Programs based on the learning expectations must take into consideration the widest possible
range of children’s life experiences and situations. The expectations are not meant to be a set
of discrete skills to be developed. They represent a range of ways of thinking at certain stages
in young children’s development, and they contain a continuum of concepts and skills that are
appropriate for Kindergarten children, including critical thinking skills.
Two sets of expectations are listed for each area of learning, as follows:
overall expectations, which describe in general terms the knowledge and skills that
children are expected to demonstrate by the end of Kindergarten
specific expectations, which describe the knowledge and skills in greater detail
Children in Kindergarten programs are expected to demonstrate achievement of the overall
expectations for each of the six areas of learning by the end of the Kindergarten years. The
expectations are not designed to address Junior and Senior Kindergarten separately
Article: New treatment improves brain connections in dyslexic children.(Mind News)(Report)(Brief article)
Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association
December 22, 2007
[Researchers at the University of Washington have found that certain areas in the brain are connected differently in dyslexic children than in high achieving non-dyslexic children. These specific areas in the brain work with the language and memory involved in reading. A study found that after participating in an instructional program for 3 weeks, the dyslexic children's brains began to connect in similar ways as the non-dyslexic children.
Todd Richards, co-author of the study, says, "Some brain regions are too strongly connected functionally in children with dyslexia when they are deciding which sounds go with which letters."
A Program to Prepare for Handwriting in Schools for Children with Special Needs
Occupational therapists working in the school system treat many children with difficulties in handwriting and prewriting skills. Here we present an intervention program to improve prewriting skills and performance skills necessary for writing and aimed primarily at first graders with learning disabilities. The program's innovation lies in its applicability within the students' classrooms, in a group setting, in collaboration with the homeroom teacher and the teaching assistant, also employing a consultation model. The program's goal is to enable the students to generalize the skills practiced to other subjects learned and encourage collaboration between the teaching staff and the occupational therapist in achieving treatment goals. This article presents the program's structure, its unique aspects, and the rationale for group therapy in the classroom and presents recommendations for future applications. The program was implemented with first grade children in a primary school for children with special needs, and preliminary outcome findings are discussed. http://www.informaworld.com1
January 2009, pages 24 - 34
Article: Toward inclusion of special education students in general education: a program evaluation of eight schools.
The primary intent of this program evaluation was to determine the degree of inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classes in four elementary and four secondary schools; the similarities and differences in how special education services were offered; and the ways in which students with disabilities were supported in the least restrictive environment. Staff perceptions of special education services were examined by conducting personal interviews with a large majority of the classroom teachers, special education teachers, instructional assistants, and principals in each school. The findings include descriptions of how far along each school was with inclusion, the amount of time students spent in general education, the roles of the special education teachers, the rates of student referrals for special education consideration, the attitudes of all staff toward inclusion and toward collaboration, and the skills of the teachers related to the inclusion of special education students. The findings also include descriptions of the impact of inclusion on other students, the performance of all students on a statewide test, and the qualitative responses of educators toward inclusion. Overall, educators were positive about educating students with disabilities in general education settings. They were conservative about how to best do this, with many of them preferring to have the included students accompanied by a special education teacher or instructional assistant or continuing to have resource room services. Nearly everyone favored using instructional assistants to help all students, not just the students with disabilities. Most educators reported feeling positive about working collaboratively and felt they had administrative support to The Programsoffer inclusive education programs.
The Incredible Years Programs
The Incredible Years, our award-winning parent training, teacher training, and child social skills training approaches have been selected by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention as an "exemplary" best practice program and as a "Blueprints" program.
The program was selected as a "Model" program by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). As such, the series has been subject to numerous randomized control evaluations, evidenced excellent effectiveness, and attained high overall ratings. The program has been recommended by the American Psychological Division 12 Task force as a well-established treatment for children with conduct problems.
The Incredible Years Series Goals
The Incredible Years Parents, Teachers, and Children Training Series has two long-range goals. The first goal is to develop comprehensive treatment programs for young children with early onset conduct problems. The second goal is the development of cost-effective, community-based, universal prevention programs that all families and teachers of young children can use to promote social competence and to prevent children from developing conduct problems in the first place.
The purpose of the series is to prevent delinquency, drug abuse, and violence. The short-term goals of the series are to:
Reduce conduct problems in children:
· Decrease negative behaviors and noncompliance with parents at home.
· Decrease peer aggression and disruptive behaviors in the classroom.
Promote social, emotional, and academic competence in children:
· Increase children's social skills.
· Increase children's understanding of feelings.
· Increase children's conflict management skills and decrease negative attributions.
· Increase academic engagement, school readiness, and cooperation with teachers.
Descriptions of some MSSL reading programs
From the original Orton-Gillingham method, many variations have been developed. Some of the modified Orton-Gillingham methods written by Orton students are The Slingerland Method, The Spalding Method, Project Read, Alphabetic Phonics, The Herman Method, and The Wilson Method. Other works included in which the authors of the programs used the tenets of Orton's work, but were not directly trained by Orton-Gillingham personnel are The Alphabetic- Phonetic- Structural -Linguistic approach to Literacy (Shedd), Sequential English Education (Pickering), and Starting Over (Knight). The Association Method (DuBard), and the Lindamood-Bell Method (Lindamood -Bell) have as their basis the research into hearing impaired and the language impaired individuals.
Alphabetic Phonics evolved directly from Orton-Gillingham. It combines all three learning modalities (auditory for spelling; visual for reading; kinesthetic for handwriting). The "Instant Spelling Deck" for daily 3-minute drill focuses on the most probable spelling of each of the forty-four speech sounds. The Initial Reading Deck is a set of 98 cards with 3D pictured key words (chosen by students) to "unlock" each of the 44 speech sounds. Bench Mark Measures geared exactly to the curriculum were added to provide periodic proof of students' progress in reading, spelling, handwriting, and alphabetizing-designed both to guide the teachers' presentation pace and to enhance the student's confidence. For more information contact the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, 2222 Welborn St., Dallas, TX 75219. Phone 214/559-7425.
The Association Method
The Association Methodis a multisensory, phonetically based, systematic, incremental instructional program for teaching and/or refining oral and written language. Special features are: multisensory teaching which includes the use of auditory, visual, tactile and motor-kinesthetic cues for learning; use of the Northampton Symbol system for teaching sound/symbol relationships for reading; use of cursive writing for initial instruction-children learn to read manuscript, but write only in cursive; a slower temporal rate of speech is used to provide children more time to process auditorily and more time to observe the speaker's lip movements; precise articulation is required from the beginning; and color differentiation is used as an attention-getter, to differentiate phonemes within words, and to highlight verbs and new concepts in language structures. An individual child's book is made as he/she progresses through the Method. For more information contact The DuBard School for Language Disorders, University of Southern Mississippi, Box 10035, Hattisburg, MS 39406-0035. Phone 601/266-5223
The Herman Approach
Renee Herman developed this sequence of instruction and a methodology that started each student at his point of deficit and sequentially taught him mastery of each skill level, expanding those skill levels vertically and horizontally as in an inverted pyramid. Multisensory strategies that link visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile stimuli help dyslexic students compensate for visual and auditory processing problems. Kinesthetic and tactile exercises are carefully sequenced and each activity is repeated until the response is automatic. The Herman Method reading curriculum encompasses: decoding and encoding skills, sight word recognition, structural analysis, use of contextual clues, dictionary access skills, decoding of diacritical symbols, and the complete spectrum of comprehension skills. For more information contact Lexia Learning Systems, Inc. 2 Lewis Street, PO Box 466 Lincoln, MA 01773 - 800-435-3942 or 781-259-8752 Fax: 781-259-1349 firstname.lastname@example.org
Phonemic Sequencing (LiPS) Program (formerly called the ADD Program, Auditory Discrimination in Depth) successfully stimulates phonemic awareness. Individuals become aware of the mouth actions which produce speech sounds. This awareness becomes the means of verifying sounds within words and enables individuals to become self-correcting in reading and spelling, and speech. The Visualizing and Verbalizing for Language Comprehension and Thinking (V/V) program develops concept imagery through a series of steps beginning with expressive language and extending from a word to imaged paragraphs. For more information contact Lindamood-Bell Learning Process, 416 Higuera, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401. Phone 800/233-1819
Montessori and Sequential English Education Approach
The Sequential English Education program is a multisensory structured language approach to teaching reading, writing, and spelling to students at risk for or diagnosed as dyslexic or having a related disorder. The program initially emphasizes the mastery of the code of the English language, the alphabetic, and phonetic system. It is one of a few programs age appropriate for 5 and 6 year old children. The instruction is 1:1 or small group (1:7) and intensive. Multisensory techniques are integral. In the SEE program the memory board (textured surface of masonite board) is used for a visual-auditory-tactile and kinesthetic input of new material being learned and any error being corrected. Comprehension proceeds from word meanings to sentence paraphrasing. For more information contact The Sequential English Education Training Program at The June Shelton School and Evaluation Center, 5002 West Lovers Lane, Dallas, TX 75209. Phone 214/352-1772
Orton-Gillingham is the structured,sequential multisensory teaching of written language based upon the constant use of association of all of the following - how a letter or word looks, how it sounds, and how the speech organs or the hand in writing feels when producing it. Children also learn the common rules of the English language such as the final e rule and when to use -ck and -tch. Older students learn a variety of syllable patterns and common prefixes and suffixes, then Latin and Greek word parts. For more information contact the Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practioners and Educators, P.O. Box 234, East Main StreetAmenia, NY 12501-0234. Phone 914/373-8919
Project Read is an alternative approach to teaching reading and written expression concepts and skills to children/adolescents in mainstream classrooms as well as in special education and Chapter One services. It began as a decoding/encoding program, but it was soon very apparent that the majority of these students had more pervasive language learning problems and so the program curriculum was expanded to include reading comprehension and written expression. thus the name "language Circle," which describes the integration of all the elements of language learning. For more information contact Language Circle Enterprises and Project READ, P.O. Box 20631, Bloomington, MN 55420. Phone 800/450-0343
The Slingerland Multisensory Approach
The Slingerland Multisensory Approach is a classroom adaptation of the Orton-Gillingham Approach. Originally created for preventive instruction, it is used today both as a preventive and remedial approach and is practiced in classrooms, in small groups, and in one-to-one settings with students ranging from primary grade children to adults. The Slingerland approach differs from more traditional approaches in several ways. Simultaneous, multisensory teaching strategies are incorporated into every facet of the lesson. The logic and structure of English are taught using the alphabetic-phonic principle of beginning with the smallest unit of sight, sound, feel-a letter. All the language arts skills-oral expression, decoding, reading comprehension, spelling handwriting and written expression-are taught with the one integrated direct instruction approach. Students are given guided practice in functional use of these skills with the goals of independent reading and written expression. For more information contact the Slingerland Institute for Literacy, One Bellevue Center, 411 108th Ave. NE, Bellevue, WAS 98004. Phone 425/453-1190
The Spalding Method is a total language arts approach consisting of integrated, simultaneous, multisensory instruction in listening, speaking, writing, spelling, and reading. These instructional elements (spelling, listening/reading comprehension, and writing) provide the major language arts strands. A fourth philosophical element insures consistency in program implementation. The Spalding principles which guide lesson plans, instruction, and decisions are the following: 1) learning with a child-centered approach, 2) multisensory instruction; 3) encouraging higher-level thinking; 4) achieving quality work; 5) recognizing the value and importance of tasks; and, 6) integrating language arts into all curriculum areas. For more information contact the Spalding Education Foundation, 2814 West Bell Road, Suite 1405, Phoenix, Arizona 85023. Phone 602/866-7801
Starting Over instruction includes diagnosis and remediation of decoding, spelling, vocabulary, writing, handwriting and comprehension. Its philosophy: 1) Dyslexic children and adults can learn to read, spell, and write if they are diagnosed and taught using a multisensory, structured language approach; 2) teachers can be taught to do both the diagnosis and the remediation; 3) dyslexics can be taught to surmount their primary problem-awareness of differences among sounds; 4) critical thinking can be taught by giving clues and asking question; 5) teachers can be taught not to give answers or model sounds; 6) memorization can be enhanced by daily review of previously introduced material; 7) sequenced steps for decoding and spelling serve to focus attention, activate and slow down the learner, enhance memorization, and foster independence; 8) comprehension can be improved by merely improving decoding; 9: when decoding has been made automatic and fluent, explicit comprehension instruction can make reading a pleasure; and, 10) writing can be mastered when taught alongside decoding and comprehension. For more information contact Starting Over, 317 West 89th Street, New York, NY 10024. Phone 212/769-2760
The Wilson Reading System
The Wilson Reading System is a 12-Step remedial reading and writing program for individuals with a language-based learning disability. This program is based on Orton-Gillingham philosophy and principles and current phonological coding research. It directly teaches the structure of words in the English language so that students master the coding system for reading and spelling. Unlike other programs that overwhelm the student with rules, the language system of English is presented in a very systematic and cumulative manner so that it is manageable. The Wilson Reading System specifically teaches strategies for decoding and spelling. However, from the beginning steps of the program, it includes oral expressive language development and comprehension. Visualization techniques are used for comprehension. For more information contact Wilson Language Training, 175 West Main Street, Millbury, MA 01527-1441. Phone 800/899-8454
Full-Day Kindergarten Programs. ERIC Digest.
Changes in American society and education over the last 20 years have contributed to the popularity of all-day (every day) kindergarten programs in many communities (Gullo, 1990). The increase in single parent and dual employment households, and the fact that most children spend a significant part of the day away from home, also signal significant changes in American family life compared to a generation ago. Studies show that parents favor a full-day program which reduces the number of transitions kindergartners experience in a typical day (Housden & Kam, 1992; Johnson, 1993). Research also suggests that many children benefit academically and socially during the primary years from participation in full-day, compared to half-day, kindergarten programs (Cryan et al., 1992).
Families who find it difficult to schedule both kindergarten and a child care program during the day are especially attracted to a full-day program (Housden & Kam, 1992). In many areas, both public and private preschool programs offer full-day kindergarten (Lofthouse, 1994). Still, some educators, policymakers, and parents prefer half-day, everyday kindergarten. They argue that a half-day program is less expensive and provides an adequate educational and social experience for young children while orienting them to school, especially if they have attended preschool. Many districts thus offer both half-day and full-day kindergarten programs when possible, but the trend is clearly in the direction of full-day kindergarten. http://www.ericdigests.org/
What are the signs of a high quality program?
· Licensing and Accreditation. Preschools that are licensed by the state must comply with the state's laws on health, sanitation, and safety. Accreditation by an organization like the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) operates as a kind of quality controller: the standards that must be met to obtain accreditation represent good quality programs.
· A low teacher-to-child ratio. For two and three-year-olds, NAEYC recommends at least two teachers for every 10 to 14 children. For four and five-year-olds, NAEYC recommends two teachers for every 15 to 20 children. Generally, the lower the ratio, the more individualized attention each student will receive.
· Experienced and educated teachers. At least one teacher in each classroom should have a degree in child development or early childhood education. Teachers should also be participating in continued education classes if possible. All staff workers must undergo a background clearance as well.
· A healthy and safe environment. The children should be under adult supervision at all times. The classrooms should be safe and contain only age-appropriate materials. There should be enough usable space indoors and outdoors so children are not crowded, and all areas should be kept reasonably clean. The school should also be secure and have fences or other barriers around the outdoor play area to prevent children from running out into the street.
· Openness. The school should have an open-door policy allowing parents to drop by, and parents should feel welcome to visit and observe classroom activity. A school that does not encourage openness with parents may have something to hide.
· A good classroom structure. High quality programs are structured enough so that the children cannot wander if they are not sure what to do, while also allowing enough freedom to let the children explore their learning environment.
What type of program should I choose?
As you may have heard, there are several different types of preschool programs for you to select from. As you explore various schools, ask yourself which program would work best for your child, your family, and you. Your child's personality will play an important part in your decision, because the school you choose should fit with his temperament and interests. You should also consider your comfort with each school's style of instruction, philosophy of nurturing children, and the steps it takes to achieve its goals. To view each of these different programs, click the links below.
· Reggio Emilia
· The Early Childhood Education Program (Kindergarten Just for Students and Parents
· ELEMENTARY SCHOOl
· Schedule of the Day
· 7:20 Campus open; teachers on
· *7:40 Students assemble for class
· *7:45 Tardy bell; instruction begins
· 8:40 Pre-school recess
· *10:00 Morning recess break (K-5)
· *10:15 Pre-School recess
· *12:10 Recess 3,4,5 Lunch K,1,2
· *12:30 Recess K,1,2 Lunch 3,4,5
· 12:30 Kindergarten 1 ends
· *12:50 K-5 Recess / Lunch ends
· *2:30 Classroom community time
· *2:45 School dismisses
· 2:50 Scheduled ASA begins
· 2:55 All buses depart campus
· *3:55 ASA ends
· 4:00 ASA buses departs
· B. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM OPPORTUNITIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
· A. Library
· ECE Children will have access to the Library on a regular scheduled basis Library books are a very special treat for children of this age. We ask parents to help make reading important by reading the chosen stories at home everyday
· B. Art
· A special Art/Activity Room is provided for children where they are encouraged to explore and develop art talents. These classes are twice within a six-day schedule week for approximately 45 minutes.
· C. Music
· Children will attend music classes twice within the six-day rotation schedule. The music teacher will help children to explore various instruments, develop their singing voices, and enrich their sense of rhythm and enjoyment and appreciation of music. This is accomplished through the students' active participation through singing, listening, and moving to
· D. Physical Education
· Children will attend physical education classes twice in a six-day rotation schedule. They will work on large muscle development, games and ball skills appropriate for their age. Students should wear comfortable, loose fitting clothing such as shorts or slacks that will not restrict their movements. ;
· E. Computer Class
· Children will explore many different software programs related to early math, reading and
· language development. Students will have the opportunity to use a classroom computer
· F. Guidance
· A school counselor serves as a consultant to classroom teachers regarding students’ social, emotional and educational growth. The counselor periodically visits the classroom and shares learning lessons related to positive social skills and personal safety.